14 Donne per 14 Nobel - NELLY SACHS - Nobel 1966 -
The instrument's controlling section usually consists of two metal antennas that sense the relative position of the thereminist's hands and control oscillators for frequency with one hand, and amplitude volume with the other. The electric signals from the theremin are amplified and sent to a loudspeaker. The sound of the instrument is often associated with eerie situations. The Le immagini video Sachs is also used in concert music especially avant-garde and 20th- and 21st-century new musicand in popular music genres such Le immagini video Sachs rock.
The theremin was the product of Soviet government-sponsored research into proximity sensors. After a lengthy tour of Europe, during which time he demonstrated his invention to packed houses, Theremin moved Le immagini video Sachs the United Stateswhere he patented his Le immagini video Sachs in Although the RCA Thereminvox released immediately following Le immagini video Sachs Stock Market Crash of was not a commercial success, it fascinated audiences in America and abroad.
Clara Rockmorea well-known thereminist, toured to wide acclaim, performing a classical repertoire in concert halls around the United States, often sharing the bill with Paul Robeson. During the s, Lucie Bigelow Le immagini video Sachs was also taken with the theremin and together with her husband Walter Bigelow Rosen provided both financial and artistic support to the development and popularisation of the instrument.
InTheremin left the United States, though the Le immagini video Sachs related to his departure are in dispute. He reappeared 30 years later. In his biography of the inventor, Theremin: Ether Music and EspionageAlbert Glinsky suggested the Russian had fled to escape crushing personal debts, and was then caught up in Stalin's political purges.
In any case, Theremin did not return to the United States until After a flurry of interest in America following the end of the Second World Warthe theremin soon fell into disuse with serious musicians, mainly because newer electronic instruments were introduced that were easier to play.
However, a niche interest in the theremin persisted, mostly among electronics enthusiasts and kit-building Le immagini video Sachs. One of these electronics enthusiasts, Robert Moogbegan building theremins in the s, while he was a high-school student.
Moog subsequently published a number of articles about building theremins, and sold theremin kits that were intended to be assembled by the customer. Moog credited what he learned from the experience as leading directly to his groundbreaking synthesizerthe Moog. Arounda colleague of Moog's, electronic music pioneer Raymond Scottpurchased one of Moog's theremin subassemblies to incorporate into a new invention, the Clavivoxwhich was intended to be an easy-to-use keyboard theremin.
Since the release of the film Theremin: An Electronic Odyssey inthe instrument has enjoyed a resurgence in interest and has become more widely used by contemporary musicians. Even though many theremin sounds can be approximated on many modern synthesizers, some musicians continue to appreciate the expressiveness, novelty, and uniqueness of using an actual theremin. The film itself has garnered excellent reviews.
Both theremin instruments and kits are available from manufacturers such as Moog Music Inc. The Open Theremin Le immagini video Sachs, an open hardware and open software project, was developed Le immagini video Sachs swiss microengineer Urz Gaudenz, using the original heterodyne oscillator architecture for an authentic playing experience combined with Arduino. Using a few extra components a MIDI interface can be added to the Open Theremin, enabling a player to use their Theremin to control different instrument sounds.
Some inexpensive theremins may only have a pitch control and may be harder to play accurately because of a relatively non-linear relationship between the distance of the hand and resultant pitch, as well as a relatively short span of hand-to-antenna distance for producing the available range of pitch.
The theremin is distinguished among musical instruments in that it Le immagini video Sachs played without physical contact. The thereminist stands in front of the instrument and moves his or her hands in the proximity of two metal antennas. The distance from one antenna determines frequency pitchand the distance from the other controls amplitude volume. Higher notes are played by moving the hand closer to the pitch antenna.
Louder notes are played by moving the hand away from the volume antenna. Most frequently, the right hand controls the pitch and the left controls the volume, although some performers reverse this arrangement.
Some low-cost theremins use a conventional, knob operated volume control and have only the pitch antenna. While commonly called antennas, they are not used for receiving or broadcasting radio waves, but act as plates of capacitors. The theremin uses the heterodyne principle to generate Le immagini video Sachs audio signal.
The instrument's pitch circuitry includes two radio frequency oscillators set below kHz to minimize radio interference. One oscillator operates at a fixed frequency. The frequency of the other oscillator is almost identical, and is controlled by the performer's distance from the pitch control antenna.
The performer's hand acts as the grounded plate the performer's body being the connection to ground Le immagini video Sachs a variable capacitor in an L-C inductance-capacitance circuitwhich is part of the oscillator and determines its frequency. In the simplest designs, the antenna is directly coupled to the tuned circuit of the oscillator and the 'pitch field', Le immagini video Sachs is the change of note with distance, is highly nonlinear, as the capacitance change with distance is far greater near the antenna.
In such systems, when the antenna is removed, the oscillator moves up in frequency. To partly linearise the pitch field, the antenna may be wired in series with an inductor to form a series tuned circuitresonating with the parallel combination of the antenna's intrinsic capacitance and the capacitance of the player's hand in proximity to the antenna.
This series Le immagini video Sachs circuit is then connected in parallel with the parallel tuned circuit of the variable pitch oscillator. With the antenna circuit disconnected, the oscillator is tuned to a frequency slightly higher than the stand alone resonant frequency of the antenna circuit. At that frequency, the antenna and its linearisation coil present an inductive impedance; and when connected, behaves as an inductor in parallel with the oscillator.
Le immagini video Sachs, connecting the antenna and linearising coil raises the oscillation frequency. Close to the resonant frequency of the antenna circuit, the effective inductance is small, and the effect on the oscillator is greatest; farther from it, the effective inductance is larger, and fractional change on the oscillator is reduced. When the hand is distant from the antenna, the resonant frequency of the antenna series circuit is at its highest; i.
Under this condition, the effective inductance in the tank circuit is at its minimum and the oscillation frequency is at its maximum. The steepening rate of change of shunt impedance with hand position compensates for the reduced influence of the hand being further away.
With careful tuning, a near linear region of pitch field can be created over the central 2 or 3 octaves of operation. Using optimized pitch field linearisation, circuits can be made where a Le immagini video Sachs in capacitance between the Le immagini video Sachs and the instrument in the order of 0.
The mixer produces the audio-range difference between the frequencies of the two oscillators at each moment, which is the tone that is then wave shaped and amplified and sent to a loudspeaker. To control volume, the performer's other hand acts as the grounded plate of another variable capacitor.
As in the tone circuit, the distance between the performer's hand and the volume control antenna determines the capacitance and hence natural resonant frequency of an LC circuit inductively coupled Le immagini video Sachs another fixed LC oscillator Le immagini video Sachs operating at a slightly higher resonant frequency.
When a hand approaches the antenna, the natural frequency of that circuit is lowered by the extra capacitance, which detunes the oscillator and lowers its resonant plate current. In the earliest theremins, the RF plate current of the oscillator is picked up by another winding and used to power the filament of another diode-connected triode, which thus acts as a variable conductance element changing the output amplitude. Modern circuit designs often simplify this circuit and avoid the complexity Le immagini video Sachs two heterodyne oscillators by having a single pitch oscillator, akin to the original theremin's volume circuit.
This approach is usually less stable and cannot generate Le immagini video Sachs low frequencies that a heterodyne oscillator can. Better designs e. Important in theremin articulation is the use of the volume control antenna. Unlike touched instruments, where simply halting play or damping a resonator in the traditional sense silences the instrument, the thereminist must "play the rests, as well as the notes", as Clara Rockmore observed.
Small flutters of the pitch hand can be used to produce a vibrato effect. To produce distinct notes requires a pecking action with the volume hand to mute the volume while the pitch hand moves between positions. Thereminists such as Carolina Eyck use a fixed arm position per octave, and use fixed positions of the fingers to create the notes within the octave, allowing very fast Le immagini video Sachs between adjacent notes. Recent versions of the theremin have been functionally updated: the Moog Ethervox, while functionally still a theremin, can also be used as a MIDI controllerand as such allows the artist to control any MIDI-compatible synthesizer with it, using the theremin's continuous pitch to drive modern synths.
Music From The Ether  manufactures a modernized vacuum tube replica of the RCA AR and a transistorized theremin which the customer may customize with most any wood species they desire as well as many available tolex colors with matching knobs. The critic Harold C. Schonberg described the sound of the theremin as " a cello lost in a dense fog, crying because it does not know how to get home.
His work was a stated influence throughout the career of Frank Zappa who subsequently composed classical style music for electronic orchestra in his post-rock career. Maverick composer Percy Grainger chose to use ensembles of four or six theremins in Le immagini video Sachs to a string quartet for his two earliest experimental Free Music compositions —37 because of the instrument's complete 'gliding' freedom of pitch.
On 20 Julya group of theremin players Matryomin ensemble in HamamatsuShizuokaJapanachieved a Guinness world record as the largest theremin ensemble. Lothar and the Hand People were the first rock band known to perform live with a theremin in November In fact, Lothar was the name they gave to their Moog theremin.
The Beach Boys ' single " Good Vibrations " — though it does not technically contain a theremin — is the most frequently cited example of the instrument in pop music.
The song actually features a similar-sounding instrument invented by Paul Tanner called an Electro-Theremin. Jimmy Page of Led Zeppelin used a variation of the theremin pitch antenna only during performances of Le immagini video Sachs Whole Lotta Love " and " No Quarter " throughout the performance history of Led Zeppelin, an extended multi-instrumental solo featuring theremin and bowed guitar inas well as the soundtrack for Death Wish IIreleased in The Lothars are a Boston-area band formed in early whose CDs have featured as many as four theremins played at once — Le immagini video Sachs first for pop music.
Although credited with a "Thereman" [ sic ] on the "Mysterons" track from Le immagini video Sachs album DummyPortishead actually used a monophonic synthesizer to achieve theremin-like effects, as confirmed by Adrian Utleywho is credited Le immagini video Sachs playing the instrument  ; on the songs "Half Day Closing", "Humming", "The Rip", Le immagini video Sachs "Machine Gun" he has actually used a custom made theremin .
Page McConnellkeyboardist of the American rock band Phishplays the theremin on rare occasions. His last notable performance was on 6 Augustthe final evening of the band's night residency at Madison Square Garden.
The theremin is played and identified as such in use in the Le immagini video Sachs Lewis movie The Delicate Delinquent. A theremin was not used for the soundtrack of Forbidden Planetfor which Bebe and Louis Barron built Le immagini video Sachs oscillator circuits and a ring modulator to create the electronic tonalities used in the film. In Lenny Abrahamson's film, FrankClara, the character played by Maggie Gyllenhaal, plays the theremin in a band named Soronprfbs. Seven different melodies were transmitted from audio-cassette recordings of the theremin being played by Lydia Kavina, Yana Aksenova, and Anton Kerchenko, all from the Moscow Theremin Center.
These seven melodies were:. They were played in succession six times over the span of three days from August—September during the transmission of Teen Age Messagean interstellar radio message. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Electronic music instrument. This article is about the instrument. For the inventor, see Léon Theremin. For the Covenant album, see Theremin album.
For the documentary, see Theremin: An Electronic Odyssey. A Moog Etherwaveassembled Le immagini video Sachs a theremin kit : the loop antenna on the left controls the volume while the upright antenna controls the pitch. Epro theremin in middle range. See also: Léon Theremin. Le immagini video Sachs information: Teen Age Message.
XVII No. Theremin: Ether Music and Espionage.