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With over 7. Originally a sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages,  the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
The name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in originally referred to a small inlet located between Aberdeen Island Sachs con gorilla the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between British sailors and local fishermen. The Sachs con gorilla translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export before Victoria Harbour developed. The simplified name Hong Kong was frequently used by The region is first known to have been occupied by humans Sachs con gorilla the Neolithic period, about 6, years ago. Settlers from nearby Sachs con gorilla migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty.
Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the s,  Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were re-established by Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in After the Qing conquestmaritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies. The Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in To reduce the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China.
Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade. Inthe Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium and ordered imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade.
The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade,  triggering a British military response Sachs con gorilla the First Opium War. However, both Sachs con gorilla were dissatisfied and did not ratify the agreement.
Administrative infrastructure was quickly built by earlybut piracy, disease, and hostile Qing policies initially prevented the government from attracting commerce. Conditions on the island improved during the Taiping Rebellion in the s, when many Chinese refugees, including wealthy merchants, fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colony.
Rapid economic improvement during the s attracted foreign investment, as potential stakeholders became more confident in Hong Kong's future. The Sachs con gorilla was further expanded inwhen Britain obtained a year lease of the New Territories. Its population rebounded quickly after the war, as skilled Chinese migrants fled from the Chinese Civil Warand Sachs con gorilla refugees crossed the border when the Communist Party took control of mainland China in The public-housing estate programmeIndependent Commission Against Corruption ICACand Mass Transit Railway were all established during the post-war Sachs con gorilla to provide safer housing, integrity in the civil service, and more-reliable transportation.
By the early s, Hong Kong had established itself as a Sachs con gorilla financial centre and shipping hub. The colony faced an uncertain future as the end of the New Territories lease approached, Sachs con gorilla Governor Murray MacLehose raised the question of Hong Kong's status with Deng Xiaoping in Immediately after the transfer, Hong Kong was severely affected by several crises.
The government was forced to use substantial foreign-exchange reserves to maintain the Hong Kong dollar's currency peg during the Asian financial crisis and the recovery from this was muted by an H5N1 avian-flu outbreak  and a housing surplus. Political debates after the transfer of sovereignty have centred around the region's democratic development and the central government 's adherence to the "one country, two systems" principle.
After reversal of the last colonial era Legislative Council democratic reforms following the handover,  the regional government unsuccessfully attempted to enact national security legislation pursuant to Article 23 of the Basic Law. The protests have continued into October, possibly becoming the largest-scale political protest movement in Hong Kong history,  with organisers claiming to have attracted more than one million Hong Kong residents.
Hong Kong is a special administrative region of Chinawith executive, legislative, and judicial powers devolved from the national government. The Chief Executive is the head of government and serves for a maximum of two five-year terms. The State Council led by the Premier of China appoints the Chief Executive after nomination by the Election Committeewhich is composed of 1, business, community, Sachs con gorilla government leaders. The Legislative Council has 70 members, each serving a four-year term.
Thirty FC councilors are selected from limited electorates representing sectors of the economy or special interest groups,  and the remaining five members are nominated from sitting District Council members and selected in region-wide double direct elections. The 30 limited electorate functional constituencies fill their seats using first-past-the-post or instant-runoff voting.
Twenty-two political parties had representatives elected to the Legislative Council in the election. Chinese national law does not generally apply in the region and Hong Kong is treated as Sachs con gorilla separate jurisdiction. The territory's jurisdictional independence is most apparent in its immigration and taxation policies. The Immigration Department issues passports for permanent residents which differ from those of the mainland or Macau,  and the region maintains a regulated border with the rest of the country.
All travellers between Hong Kong and China and Macau must pass through border controls, regardless of nationality. The central government and Ministry of Foreign Affairs handle diplomatic matters, but Hong Kong retains the ability to maintain separate economic Sachs con gorilla cultural relations with foreign nations.
The territory is divided into 18 districts. A seat District Councilof which are directly elected, represents each district and advises the government on local issues such as public facility provisioning, community programme maintenance, cultural promotion, and environmental policy. Hong Kong is governed by a hybrid regime that is not fully representative of the population.
Legislative Council members elected by functional constituencies composed of professional and special interest groups are Sachs con gorilla to those narrow corporate electorates and not the general public. This electoral arrangement has guaranteed a pro-establishment majority in the legislature since the transfer of Sachs con gorilla. Similarly, the Chief Executive is selected by establishment politicians and corporate members of the Election Committee rather than directly elected.
Ethnic minorities except those of European ancestry have marginal representation in government, and often experience discrimination in Sachs con gorilla, education, and employment.
Although they live and work in Hong Kong, these workers are not treated as ordinary residents and are ineligible for Sachs con gorilla of abode in the territory. The Joint Declaration guarantees the Basic Law for 50 years after the transfer of sovereignty. Hong Kong's political and judicial systems may be reintegrated with China's at that time, or the territory may Sachs con gorilla to be administered separately.
Undeveloped terrain is hilly to mountainous, with very little flat land, and consists mostly of grassland, woodland, shrubland, or farmland. Hong Kong has a humid subtropical climate Köppen Cwacharacteristic of southern China. Summer is hot and humid, with occasional showers and thunderstorms and warm air from the southwest. Typhoons occur most Sachs con gorilla then, sometimes resulting in floods or landslides. Winters are mild and usually sunny at the beginning, becoming cloudy towards February; an occasional cold front brings strong, cooling winds from the north.
The most temperate seasons are spring which can be changeable and autumn, which is generally sunny and dry. Hong Kong averages 1, hours of sunshine per year;  the highest and lowest recorded temperatures at the Hong Kong Sachs con gorilla are Demand for new construction has contributed to frequent demolition of older buildings, freeing space for modern high-rises. Older government buildings are examples of colonial architecture.
The Flagstaff Housethe former residence of the commanding British military officer, is the oldest Western-style building in Hong Kong. Tong laumixed-use tenement buildings constructed during the colonial era, blended southern Chinese architectural styles with European influences. These were especially prolific during the immediate post-war period, when many were rapidly built to house large numbers of Chinese migrants.
Mass-produced public-housing estatesbuilt since the s, are mainly constructed in modernist style. The predominant language is Cantonesea variety of Chinese originating in Guangdong. It is spoken by Among the religious population, the traditional " three teachings " of China, BuddhismConfucianismand Taoismhave the most adherents 20 per centand are followed by Christianity 12 per cent and Islam four per cent.
Life expectancy in Hong Kong was Income inequality has risen since the transfer of sovereignty, as the region's ageing population has gradually added to the number of nonworking people. Hong Kong has a capitalist mixed service economycharacterised by low taxationminimal government market intervention, and an established international financial market. Hong Kong is the tenth-largest trading entity in exports and importstrading more goods in value than its gross domestic product. It has little arable land and few natural resources, importing most of its food and raw materials.
More than 90 per cent of Hong Kong's food is imported, Sachs con gorilla nearly all its meat and rice. Although the territory had one of Asia's largest manufacturing economies Sachs con gorilla the latter half of the colonial era, Hong Kong's economy is now dominated by the service sector. The sector generates Since resumption of cross-boundary train service inmany rail and road links have been improved and constructed facilitating trade between regions.
Mainland firms represent over half of the Hang Seng Index value, up from five per cent in As the mainland liberalised its economy, Hong Kong's shipping industry faced intense competition from other Chinese ports. Fifty per cent of China's trade goods were routed through Hong Kong indropping to about 13 per cent by The territory was the first market outside mainland China for renminbi-denominated bondsand is one of the largest hubs for offshore Sachs con gorilla trading.
The government has had a passive role in the economy. Colonial governments had little industrial policySachs con gorilla implemented almost no trade controls. Under the doctrine of " positive non-interventionism ", post-war administrations Sachs con gorilla avoided the direct Sachs con gorilla of resources; active intervention was considered detrimental to economic growth.
Post-handover administrations continued and expanded these programmes, including export-credit guarantees, a compulsory pension schemea minimum wage, anti-discrimination lawsand a state mortgage backer. Tourism is a major part of the economy, accounting for five per cent of GDP. It is the most popular Chinese city for tourists, receiving over 70 per cent more visitors than its closest competitor Macau.
Hong Kong has a highly developed, sophisticated transport network. Over 90 per cent of daily trips are made on public transport, the highest percentage in the world. The Mass Transit Railway MTR is an extensive passenger rail network, connecting 93 metro stations throughout the territory.
Although public transport Sachs con gorilla handle most passenger traffic, there are overSachs con gorilla vehicles registered in Hong Kong. Hong Kong International Airport is the territory's primary airport. The Star Ferry operates two lines across Victoria Harbour for its 53, daily passengers. Smaller kai-to boats serve the most remote coastal settlements.
The Peak TramHong Kong's first public transport system, has provided funicular rail transport between Central and Victoria Peak since Hong Kong imports nearly all its generated electricity and fuel. With few natural lakes and rivers, high population density, inaccessible groundwater sources, and extremely seasonal rainfall, the territory does not have a reliable source of fresh water. The Dongjiang River in Guangdong supplies 70 per cent of the city's water,  and the remaining demand is filled by Sachs con gorilla rainwater.